Friday, May 31, 2013

Second Crusader Chronology

Crusade Chronology,  1192 -- 1302

1189- 1192 -- The Third Crusade sets off for the Middle East; King Richard I of England seizes Cyprus from the Byzantine Empire:  Crusaders retake Acre and defeat Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf; Crusaders fail to reach Jerusalem; King Richard agrees a peace treaty with Saladin;
1193 -- Death of Saladin;
1197 -- King Aimery of Cyprus  (since 1194) becomes King of Jerusalem (until 1205); German Crusade to the Middle East;
1198 -- Cilician Armenia  becomes a kingdom: German Hospital reconstituted as the Order of Teutonic Knights;
1202 - 1204 -- Fourth Crusade seizes the Byzantine imperial capitol; creation of the Latin Empire of Constantinople; beginning of the Crusader conquest of southern Greece;
1205 -- Hugh I becomes the King of Cyprus (until 1218);
1210 -- John of Brienne becomes King of Jerusalem (until 1225);
1218 -- Henry I becomes King of Cyprus (until 1253); Fifth Crusade invades Egypt by sea;
1221 -- Fifth Crusade is defeated at the First Battle of Mansurah;
1225 -- Emperor Frederick ii of Germany and Italy becomes ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (until 1243);
1229 --Civil War in the Kingdom of Cyprus (until 1233);
1231 - 1242 -- Commune of Acre becomes center of resistance to Emperor Frederick II’s rule in the Kingdom of Jerusalem;
1243 -- Conrad becomes King of Jerusalem (until 1254); Mongols invade Seljuk Anatolia;
1244 -- Kingdom of Jerusalem forms an alliance with the Ayyubid rulers of Damascus and Jordan against the Ayyubid ruler of Egypt; Khwarazian refugee army from eastern Islam (fleeing advancing Mongols) takes Jerusalem fron Crusader Kingdom; Crusader States defeated at the Battle of La Forbie;
1245 -- Emperor Frederick II deposed;
1250 -- Crusade of King Louis IX of France invades Egypt: death of Sultan al- Salith Ayub of Egypt; Louis IX defeated at second Battle of Mansurah; effective establishment of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt;
1253 -- Hugh II becomes King of Cyprus (until 1267);
1254 -- Conraddin becomes King of Jerusalem (until 1268; note that now was actual capitol of the Kingdom);
1256 -- Civil War in Acre (until 1258);
1258 -- Mongols invade Iraq and sack Baghdad;
1260 --Mongols invade Syria: Crusader Principality of Antioch and Kingdom of Cicilian Armenia ally with Mongols; Mamluks defeat Mongols at the Battle of Ayn Julut; Baybars becomes Mamluk Sultan of Egypt;
1261 -- Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII retakes Constantinople from Latin (Crusader) Empire;
1263 - 1266 -- Mamluks destroy Nazareth, and take Caesarea, Arsuf, and Safad;
1267 -- Hugh III becomes King of Cyprus (until 1284);
1268 -- Mamluks retake Jaffa, Belfort, and Antioch;
1269 -- King Hugh III  of Cyprus becomes ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (until 1284) ; Argonese Crusade arrives in Acre;
1271 -- Mamluks retake Castel Blanc, Crac des Chevaliers, and Monfort;  Crusade of Prince Edward of Englandreaches Acre then attacks Caco;
1276 - 1277 -- King Hugh IIIabandons Palestine for Cyprus; Mary of Antioch sells the Crown to King Charles of southern Italy; Kingdom of Jerusalem divided between Lords who recognize or reject Charles;
1277 -- Civil War in County of Tripoli  (until 1283);
1284 -- John I becomes King of Jerusalem and Cyprus (until 1285);
1285 -- Henry II becomes King of Cyprus (nominal ruler until 1324); Mamluks take Margat;
1287 - 1289 -- Crusade led by Alice of Blois reaches Acre; Maluks take Latakia and Tripoli;
1290 -- Northern Italian Crusade to the Holy Land;
1291 -- Maluks take Acre, Sidon,  and Beirut: Crusaders evacuate Tatus and Atlit;
1299 -- Mongols defeat Mamluk army near Homs, leading to a temporary revival of Crusading optimism in Europe;
1302 --Mamluks retake Arwad island; probable end of Crusader rule at Jbayl.


David Nicolle, Adam Hook (illus,), “Crusader Castles In The Holy Land 1192 -- 1302,” (Osprey Pub. -- Fortress 32 -- 2005).

Respectfully Submitted;

Marcus Audens

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