Sunday, April 28, 2013

The Principality of Antioch

The Principality of Antioch;

In 1096 "The First Crusade" set out from Europe with the idea of regaining the "Holy City of Jerusalem," from Islamic control.  By 1099, this aim had expanded into the capture of Jerusalem and Palestine closely followed by the creation of the  so-called, "Crusader States" across the region in what are now parts of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Isreal, Palestine,  and Jordan.  The "Warrior Elite" of these four Crusader States of Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem had to build ever more formidable castle walls to defend these territories after 1109.

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

"Sea Castle" #2, Sidon, (Saidon) Lebanon

"Sea Castle," Sidon, (Saida), Lebanon

13th century, Crusader's Castle, harbour castle, damaged, rectangular, or polygonal.

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Crac des Chevaliers -- Wall-head defences

This view is on the South front of the inner enceinte (curtain wall) immediately East of the central tower.  Note the arrow slit with the sloping stirrup base to allow downward firing.  The larger rectangular opening, to the left, may have been designed for the larger ballistas.

"Crusader Castle," Page 168

Rock-Cut Gatehouse, Li Vaux Moise

12th Century Crusader

"Crusader Castles," Page 27

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Sidon Castle -- Lebanon

Sea Castle at Sidon, Lebanon

Saturday, April 13, 2013

Monday, April 8, 2013

The Great European Steppe

Margat Castle

This castle was also known as "Qalaat al-Marqmb" (Castle of the Watchtower); near Baniyas, Syria.

This fortress was a major stronghold of the Hospitaller Knights.

Trenctn, Slovakia

1. Gate Tower;
2. Residential Area;
3. Gate Tower;
4. Fortified Church;
5. Lower Castle;
6. Administrative and Residential Buildings;
7. Chapel;
8. Moat;
9. Upper Castle;
10. Courtyard;
11. Keep;
12. Great Hall;
13. Lists.

Roman Empire, AD 395

The division of the Roman Empire into the West and East Empires at the death of Theodosius I in 
AD 395

Croyland Bridge (from the Topographia Britannica(

Antibes Aqueduct

Pont Ambroix, Gard Depi, France

Carcassone, France

The "hoardings" projecting from the wall of the castle created  an overhanging gallery.  The floors of these "hoardings" had openings from which the defenders could protect the walls from enemy assault.

Uex'kull - Inskile - Latvia

12th century harbor castle.  Founders -- Order of the Tuetonic Knights.

First stone castle in Latvia.