Saturday, June 1, 2013

Third Crusader Chronology

Crusader Chronology 1194 --1453

1194 -- Amaury of Lusignan becomes the ruler of Cyprus; the following year he is recognized as a King (Creation of the Crusader Kingdom of Cyprus);
1198 -- Proclamation of the Fourth Crusade;
1204 -- Fourth Crusade conquers the Byzantine Imperial Capitol, (Constantinople) ; Count Baldwin of Flanders is elected as the first Latin Emperor;
1205 -- Conquest of Morea (Peloponnese, southern Greece) by Geoffrey de Villehardouin and William de Champlitte; establishment of the Crusader States of Greece;
1229 - 1233 -- Civil War in Crusader Cyprus;
1235 --John of Brienne saves Crusader Constantinople; defeat of Byzantines and Bulgarians;
1259 -- Crusader Principality of Achaea in Greece defeated by Byzantines at Pelagonia;
1261 -- Byzantine “Emperor of Nicaea” retakes Crusader-ruled Constantinople; Crusader States also surrender Monemvasia, Mistra, and Maina in southern Greece;
1267 -- Crusader Principality of Achaea recognizes suzerainty of Charles of Anjou, ruler of southern Italy;
1271 -- Charles of Anjou recognized as king of Albania;
1278 -- Death of Prince William of Achaea; Charles of Anjou takes over direct government of Achaea;
1282 -- “Silcian Vespers” revolt in Sicily against Charles of Anjou; Peter of Aragon invades Sicily;
1285 -- Death of Charles of Anjou; end of Angevin attempts to create an empire in Italy, Sicily, Greece and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem;
1291 -- Mamluks conquer Acre; end of Kingdom of Jerusalem, though the title “King of Jerusalem” still remains, usually held by the Lusignan rulers of Cyprus;
1306 -- Crusader Order of Hospitallers invades the Byzantine Island of Rhodes;
1309 -- Hospitallers transfer their headquarters to Rhodes;
1311 -- Crusader forces in Greece defeated by the free-booting Catalan Company (mercenary army); Catalna take cotrol of Athens and Thebes;
1313 - 1316 -- Civil War in the Principality of Achaea; Ferdinand of Majorca, leader of the Catalan Company  and claimant to Achaea, defeated and killed by Louis of Bergundy, grandson-in-law of William of Villehardouin;
1332 -- Agreement between Venice, the Hospitallers, and the Byzantine Empire leads to formation of the first “Crusade League” against the Turks (France and the Papacy join the following year);
1334 -- The Crusade League fleet defeats the Turks in the Gulf of Edremit;
1344 -- The Crusade League takes Smyrna (Izmir) from the Turks;
1346 -- The Genoese take over Chios and Foca from the Byzantines;
1354 -- Byzantines cede Lesbos to the Geonese; Ottomans seize a European bridgehead at Gallopoli;
1359 -- Peter I becomes the King of Cyprus; Crusade League fleet defeats Turks at Lampacus;
1360 - 1361 -- Kingdom of Cyprus occupies Corycos and Adalia on the southern coast of Anatolia;
1365 -- Crusade led by Peter I of Cyprus  briefly occupies Alexandria (Egypt);
1366 -- Crusade led by Amadeus of Savoy in Thrace and Bulgaria;
1367 -- Peter I of Cyprus raids Cicilia and Syria;
1369 -- Assassination of Peter i of Cyprus ; Geonese take control of Famagusta in Cyprus, expelling their Venetian rivals;
1371 -- Ottoman victory at the Battle of Maritsa, followed by the Ottoman conquest of most of Bulgaria and Macedonia;
1373 - 1374 -- War between Cyprus and Genoa; Hospitallers take over defense of Crusader held Smyrna (Izmir);
1376 -- Principality of Achaea  leased to the Hospitallers, but is taken over by the Navarrese Company (a mercenary army);
1378 -- The Hospitaller Grand Master is captured by the Ottoman’s at Arta in Greece;
1379 -- Navarese Company takes control of Thebes;
1388 -- End of Cataln rule in Athens;
1389 -- Ottoman victory at the first Battle Kosova (Kosova Field) leaves them as the dominant power in the Balkans;
1396 -- Large Crusading army destroyed by the Ottomans in the Battle of Nicopolis;
1402 -- Timur -i Lenk (Tamerlane) conquers Izmir from the Hospitallers;
1406 - 1407 -- Hospitallers start building a castle  at Bodrum on the Anatolian mainland;
1424 - 1425 -- Mamluks raid Cyprus and capture King Janus;
1432 -- Thomas Paleol0gus, Byzantine despot of Morea, takes “Crusader” Principality of Achaea;
1444 -- Mamluks unsuccessfully besiege Hospitaller Rhodes; Ottomans defeat a Crusader army at Varna;
1448 -- Ottomans defeat Hungarians at the second Battle of Kosova;
1453 -- Ottomans conquer Constantinople: end of the Byzantine Empire.


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