Thursday, February 17, 2011
The surviving late 11th - to late 12th century fortress is shown in black lines '////,' those existing only as foundations and the presumed line of missing parts are shown in dark grey '........'. The 13th century Ayyubid and Mamluk citadel, which surrounds the inner citadel, is shown in white outlined in black lines:
!. Bab al-Hadid 'Iron Gate;'
2. Northern gate of a later citadel;
3. Underground Nahr al-Qulayt canal, entering from the West and leaving in the South (After Hanisch)
David Nicolle, "Saracen Strongholds, 1100 - 1500," Fortress 87, Osprey Pub., London, 2009, pp. 5.