Tuesday, February 8, 2011
Ottoman Fortifications at Bursa
Bursa (after Turkish Antiquities Authorities);
--The Main Islamic religious square buildings in are in black;
1.-Salatanat Kapi (Sultan's Gate);
3.-Kaplica Kapi (Gate of the Hot Springs);
4.-Zindan Kapi (Prison Gate);
5.-Fetih Kapi (Conqueror's Gate);
6.-Yer Kapi (Ground or Low Gate);
7.-Tombs of Ottoman Rulers; Osman and Orhan Gazi;
When the Ottomans captured the Byzantine city of Bursa, they took over a strongly fortified citadel which they maintained in good repair for many centuries. Bursa is located just West and South of the Sea of Marmara in Anatolia, almost directly South of Constantinople.
As the Ottoman state increased in size and sophistication, greater emphasis was placed on urban, palatial and 'mercantile' fortifications. When the Bergundian Ambassador Bertrandon de la Broquiere visited Bursa in 1433 the city consisted of several settlements divided by deep ravines, but he noted that only one was fortified, this being a 'very beautiful castle on a low mountain which is one of the outcrops of the city.'
D. Nicolle, "Ottoman Fortifications, 1300-1710," Fortress 95, Osprey Pub., Oxford, England, 2010, pp 5,7,14, and 41.